The latest methods of treating keratoconus
The development of keratoconus is divided into 3 stages:
- The first stage (simple):
And in which the vision is good with glasses. At this stage, keratoconus is stabilised by cross linking so that no further deterioration occurs.
Where the surgeon uses drops of riboflavin placed on the surface of the cornea after removing the epithelial cells on its front surface.
Then, ultraviolet light is used in specific doses, which increases the bonds between the collagen fibers and strengthens the corneal tissue, which prevents the deterioration for many years after this process.
- Stage Two (Intermediate):
Here the patient’s vision is not good with glasses. At this stage, we treat keratoconus by inserting special kind of rings rings (Intrastromal corneal rings):
Where the doctor inserts micro-rings inside the cornea using a femto-laser, which reduces the curvature of the cornea, leading to a significant improvement in vision in most cases, and then we stabilise the keratoconus with ultraviolet rays and riboflavin so that no deterioration occurs again.
In some cases where the thickness of the cornea allows this, we treat keratoconus by surface laser with a corneal rings to modify the curvature of the cornea, then we fix the keratoconus with ultraviolet rays and riboflavin so that no deterioration occurs again.
- Stage III (severe):
In which there’s opacities in the cornea, or a very severe curvature of the cornea.
At this stage, we perform a corneal transplant (graft)
There are two types: –
Penetrating corneal transplantation: in which the patient’s cornea is replaced by a whole human cornea.
Partial corneal transplantation: where the patient’s surface layers are replaced while preserving the inner layer of cells lining the back surface of the cornea, which leads to a reduction in the rate of rejection.
For a transplanted cornea. In the case of corneal transplantation, the patient must pay attention to follow-up and adhere to medications and drops.